Massachusetts has state legislation around cord blood education that is two-tiered. Hospitals are required to inform all pregnant women in the 3rd trimester of the opportunity to donate cord blood. There is also a public education program run by the Dept. of Health that follows the Institute of Medicine guidelines and asks (but does not mandate) physicians to educate expectant parents about ALL forms of cord blood banking. The Massachusetts bill was enacted 30 May 2005 and became effective immediately.
- Processing: How is cord blood processed before storage?
The three main components of cord blood, like any blood collection, can be separated by weight: the heaviest layer is the red blood cells (RBC), the lightest is the plasma (a clear white liquid), and in the middle is a pinkish layer called the "buffy coat" which contains the white blood cells (WBC), including stem cells. When banks process the cord blood, the final separated component that goes into storage is the buffy coat, even though only about 1% of the cells are actually stem cells. There is no procedure to separate out the stem cells alone.
The vast majority of blood processing methods rely on the different density of the three main blood components. They can be separated by sedimentation, or by centrifuge, or by a combination of the two techniques. The procedure can be performed manually by trained technicians or by automated machine.
- Why is it important to ship cord blood with a special courier?
The Parent's Guide to Cord Blood Foundation recommends shipping with a courier that has a division specializing in "Life Sciences" transport. This helps to insure that your critical shipment is not misplaced, arrives promptly, and is maintained within the acceptable temperature range during transport from the hospital to the lab.
The first priority for parents to consider is the cord blood shipping time: Once the cord blood is harvested, the blood cells and stem cells gradually begin to die. Public cord blood banks set a limit of 48 hours on the time between birth and processing the blood for cryogenic storage. It would be a "best practice" if family banks also followed the 48 hour window.
The second priority for parents to consider is the cord blood shipping temperature: The standard procedure for transporting fresh cord blood is to keep it within an ambient temperature range of 15 °C (59 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F). Priority shipping services may guarantee the arrival time, but not the temperature conditions during transit. The cord blood might get too hot or too cold while sitting in the back of a truck, on a loading dock, or in the cargo hold of an airplane. A specialty courier with Life Sciences expertise will carry the cord blood in a controlled environment.
Parents can improve the survival of their child's cells during transit to the cord blood laboratory by selecting a family bank that provides a well insulated shipping container and that provides a specialty courier who maintains the shipment within the desired temperature range. In many countries it is standard practice for the shipping container to have a temperature logger.
In the United States, the post 9/11 security requirements of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) require that specialty couriers can only offer cord blood shipping through those cord blood banks that are registered with the TSA as a "Known Shipper". Before 9/11, specialty couriers could market their services directly to consumers, and in some countries this is still possible. Parents should check if a Family Bank offers specialty courier services before they sign a contract.
- If I donate my baby's cord blood, will that child have free access to cord blood for a transplant?
- No. When a mother signs the Informed Consent to donate cord blood, she gives up any guaranteed access to that blood. The blood may not be banked, and if it is banked, it may be released to some one else. There have been cases where families needed their child's cord blood and got it back from a public bank, but it is important to realize there are no guarantees of access to donated cord blood. Cord blood donors also do not receive guarantees of priority treatment or waived fees if your child later needs a donor. The reward for donating cord blood is the possibility that your baby may Be The Match that saves a life.